Internet-Draft Enhanced Use cases for Scaling Determini October 2023
Zhao, et al. Expires 25 April 2024 [Page]
Intended Status:
Standards Track
J. Zhao
Q. Xiong
ZTE Corporation
Z. Du
China Mobile

Enhanced Use cases for Scaling Deterministic Networks


This document describes use cases and network requirements for scaling deterministic networks which is not covered in RFC8578, such as industrial internet, high experience Video and computing-aware applications, and analyzes the classification for the three typical use cases and applications.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

This Internet-Draft will expire on 25 April 2024.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

According to [RFC8655], Deterministic Networking (DetNet) operates at the IP layer and delivers service which provides extremely low data loss rates and bounded latency within a network domain. The bounded latency indicates the minimum and maximum end-to-end latency from source to destination and bounded jitter (packet delay variation). [RFC8578] has presented use cases for diverse industries and these use cases differ in their network topologies and requirements. It should provide specific desired behaviors in DetNet.

[I-D.ietf-detnet-scaling-requirements] focus on the scaling deterministic networks and describes the enhanced requirements for DetNet enhanced data plane including the deterministic latency guarantees and it also mentioned the enhanced DetNet should support different levels of application requirements which is important for the DetNet deployment. There are a variety of use cases in scaling deterministic networks which is not covered in [RFC8578]. It is required to provide the typical use cases for scaling deterministic networks and analyze the SLAs requirements and desired behaviors in enhanced DetNet.

The industries covered by the use cases in this document are:

This document describes use cases and network requirements for scaling deterministic networks including industrial internet, high experience Video and computing-aware applications and analyzes the classification for the three typical use cases and applications.

1.1. Requirements Language

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2. Terminology

The terminology is defined as [RFC8655] and [RFC8578].

3. Enhanced Use Cases and Network Requirements

3.1. Industrial Internet

In the industrial internet, the entire industrial process can be roughly divided into research and development design, production manufacturing, operation and maintenance services. The typical application prospects of deterministic networks mainly include ultra-high definition video, AR/VR, Cloud-based robots, remote control, machine vision, and cloud-based AGV. The scenarios such as machine vision, AGV intelligent control, remote control, and AR assisted robotic arm control demand deterministic requirements.

3.1.1. Machine Vision

The machine vision system needs to achieve real-time remote monitoring function, which requires high-speed and large connectivity characteristics. It can monitor the production process execution management system (MES) of manufacturing enterprises through mobile and portable terminals without entering the workshop, and obtain the operating status of the visual inspection system, such as normal operating time, effective operating time, fault cause etc. It is bandwidth sensitive and demand cloud deployment and wide area hosting requirements.

The following table shows the main network requirements of machine vision.(These metrics are based on 3GPP Standard 3GPP TS 22.104, 3GPP TR 22.261, and 3GPP TR 22.829.)

   |    Machine Vision Requirement   |            Attribute            |
   |      Bandwidth                  |   Real time upload of image     |
   |                                 |   information:>50M              |
   |                                 |                                 |
   |     One-way maximum delay       |              10 ms              |
   |                                 |                                 |
   |           Availability          |             99.99%              |

Figure 1: Requirements of Machine Vision

3.1.2. Remote Control

Remote control can ensure personnel safety, improve production efficiency, and achieve assistance from multiple production units. In order to achieve the effect of remote control, the controller needs to send status information to the controller through a communication network based on remote perception. The controller analyzes and makes decisions based on the received status information, and then sends corresponding action instructions to the controller through the communication network. The controller executes the corresponding actions based on the received action instructions, completing the remote control process. In order to guarantee control effectiveness, communication network latency, jitter, and reliability are even more important. The typical application is Cloud-based PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). It is jitter sensitive type and cloud based PLC demand wide area hosting.

The following table describes requirements of Cloud-based PLC. (These metrics are based on 3GPP Standard 3GPP TS 22.104, 3GPP TR 22.261, and 3GPP TR 22.829.)

   |  Cloud-based PLC Requirement  |            Attribute              |
   |     Bandwidth                 | Image/video stream upload,        |
   |                               |  upstream>50Mbps;                 |
   |                               | PLC control command issued,       |
   |                               |  downstream>50kbps;               |
   |                               |                                   |
   |      One-way maximum delay    |Within workshop level equipment:1ms|
   |                               |Workshop level equipment room:10ms |
   |                               |Remote operation in the park/city/ |
   |                               |wide area: image upstream:20ms;    |
   |                               |Command issuance:10ms;             |
   |                               |                                   |
   |          Maximum jitter       |      Less than 100 us             |
   |                               |                                   |
   |           Availability        |             99.999%               |

Figure 2: Requirements of Cloud-based PLC

3.1.3. AGV intelligent control

Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) is an intelligent device widely u sed in highly automated places such as factory workshops, airports, ports, freight warehouses, etc. It generally consists of three parts: walking, navigation, and control systems. The automated AGV is equipped with a camera to capture the scene in front of the vehicle and upload it to the MEC and navigation system in real-time through a 5G module for image analysis and route planning, achieving fully automated logistics transportation. AGV has a certain driving speed and is often used in cluster operation scenarios. Therefore, a network connection with high deterministic delay and jitter is required to transmit control signals.

The following table describes requirements of AGV intelligent control.(These metrics are based on 3GPP Standard 3GPP TS 22.104, 3GPP TR 22.261, and 3GPP TR 22.829.)

   | AGV Intelligent Control     |                                      |
   |              Requirement    |            Attribute                 |
   |     Bandwidth               |Schedule communication:>1Mbps,        |
   |                             |Real time communication:1Mbps~200Mbps |
   |                             |Visual: 10Mbps~1Gbps                  |
   |                             |                                      |
   |    One-way maximum delay    |Schedule communication:100ms          |
   |                             |Dispatching communication:100ms       |
   |                             |Real time communication:20ms~40ms     |
   |                             |Visual: 10ms~100ms                    |
   |     Availability            |             99.9999%                 |

Figure 3: Requirements of AGV Intelligent Control

3.1.4. AR Assistance

With the intelligent and networked transformation and upgrading of industrial manufacturing equipment, more and more AR assisted intelligent robots will be used in advanced manufacturing. At the same time, there are scenarios where multiple robot systems work together, such as welding, stamping, etc. The robotic arm is the most widely used automated mechanical device in the field of robotics technology, in fields such as industrial manufacturing, medical treatment, entertainment services, military, semiconductor manufacturing, and space exploration. The more axis joints of the AR assisted robotic arm, the higher the degree of freedom, and the larger the angle of the operating range.

The following table describes requirements of AR Assistance. (These metrics are based on 3GPP Standard 3GPP TS 22.104, 3GPP TR 22.261, and 3GPP TR 22.829.)

   |  AR Assistance Requirement|            Attribute       |
   |     Bandwidth             | Maintenance guidance:      |
   |                           |  downstream>50Mbps         |
   |                           |  upstream > 20Mbps         |
   |                           |  downstream>50kbps         |
   |                           | Auxiliary assembly: >50Mbps|
   |                           |  downstream: 1Mbps~30Mbps  |
   |                           |                            |
   |  One-way maximum delay    |Maintenance guidance:20ms   |
   |                           |Auxiliary assembly:10ms     |
   |                           |                            |
   |    Maximum jitter         |      Less than 500 us      |
   |                           |                            |
   |    Availability           |        99.999%             |

Figure 4: Requirements of AR Assistance

3.2. High Experience Video

3.2.1. Cloud VR and AR

The key feature of Cloud Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality (Cloud VR/AR) is that content is on the cloud and rendering is on the cloud. By utilizing powerful cloud capabilities, VR/AR user experience is improved and terminal costs are reduced. VR/AR will quickly enter Cloud VR/AR to promote the rapid popularization of VR/AR business. Cloud AR/VR services exhibit strong latency sensitivity, and different levels of experience require differentiated certainty. Cloud VR/AR rendering and streaming latency are divided into three parts: cloud processing, network transmission, and terminal processing. Cloud VR/AR operation latency is divided into cloud rendering latency and terminal secondary rendering and refresh rendering processes.

The following table describes requirements of Cloud VR/AR. (These metrics are based on 3GPP TR 22.261).

|    Requirement       | Bandwidth |One-way maximum delay|Packet loss rate|
| Cloud VR/AR Video    |downstream |  50ms               |no more than    |
|  comfortable         | >75Mbps   |                     |0.001%          |
|  experience          |           |                     |                |
| Cloud VR/AR Video    |downstream |  50ms               |no more than    |
|comfortable experience|>140Mbps   |                     |0.001%          |
|full perspective      |           |                     |                |
| Cloud VR/AR strong   |downstream |  15ms               |no more than    |
|interaction           |>260Mbps   |                     |0.001%          |
|comfortable experience|           |                     |                |
|I frame and P frame   |           |                     |                |
| Cloud VR/AR strong   |downstream |  8ms                |no more than    |
|interaction           |1Gbps      |                     |0.0001%         |
|8K ideal experience   |           |                     |                |
|I frame and P frame   |           |                     |                |
Figure 5: The Requirements of Cloud VR/AR

3.2.2. Cloud Games

Cloud Game is an online gaming technology based on cloud computing technology. Cloud gaming technology enables lightweight devices with relatively limited graphics processing and data computing capabilities to run high-quality games. In cloud game scenarios, game related computing is not run on the user terminal, but on a cloud server, which renders the game scene as a video and audio stream and transmits it to the user terminal through the network. The user's cloud gaming experience relies on a high-quality, low latency network environment.

The following table describes requirements of Cloud Games:

|    Requirement       | Bandwidth |One-way maximum delay|Video resolution|
| Junior level         | >8Mbps    |  150ms              |720P            |
| 3A professional level| >12Mbps   |  60ms               |1080P           |
| Level of esports     | >40Mbps   |  60ms               |4K              |
Figure 6: Requirements of Cloud Games

3.2.3. Cloud Live Streaming

For scenarios such as concerts, press conferences, sports events, and live events, cloud live streaming uses 5G uplink high bandwidth to transmit 8K/VR videos. Combined with various applications such as video analysis based on live streaming services, character and scene recognition, real-time presentation of athlete and event data, and VR live streaming interaction, it provides a brand new and rich event viewing experience.

The following table describes requirements of Cloud live streaming:

   | 8K live streaming      |  Attribute          |
   | 8K video feedback      |                     |
   |     Bandwidth          |  upstream>100Mbps   |
   |                        |                     |
   |  One-way maximum delay |  200ms              |
   |                        |                     |
   |    Availability        |  99.9%              |
   |                        |                     |
   |   Frame rate           |  60                 |
Figure 7: Requirements of Cloud Live Streaming

3.3. Computing-aware Applications

HPC and big data applications demand high bandwidth and high reliability in carrying capacity. In the field of scientific research, a large amount of computing power resources such as CPU, GPU, memory, and other P-level or higher are usually required. The bearer network needs to provide access data channels of 10G to 100G or above, and propose high reliability and high isolation bearer requirements.

In nuclear fusion experiments, the carrier network is required to have 99.999% availability. DC remote disaster recovery proposes deterministic load-bearing requirements for large bandwidth, low latency, and secure isolation. DC remote disaster recovery applications are mainly concentrated in industries such as finance and bonds. The data consistency requirement for remote disaster recovery multi activity systems should not exceed 10ms, and the data consistency requirement for local disaster recovery multi activity systems should be between 1.5ms and 2ms.

4. Classification of the Differentiated Applications

Classification and characteristics has been summarized from the requirements of use cases as described in [RFC8578] and this documents. Seven levels of typical applications have been defined including on-site production control, remote production control, production monitoring, production collection, video AI, AR/VR high experience video and key control. Different levels of applications differ in the network ranges and SLAs requirements such as bounded latency, jitter, bandwidth, availability and isolation.

The following table summarizes deterministic requirements of industrial internet, cloud video and new computing force applications, ect.

|   |   Classification   | Typical Applications|Characteristics  |Networks     |
| 1 | Production control | Industrial          | low jitter      |Local area   |
|   | in the park        | internet            | low latency     |             |
|   |                    | PLC,etc             | low bandwidth   |             |
| 2 | Remote control     | Industrial          | low jitter      |Local/       |
|   |                    | internet            | low latency     |metropolitan/|
|   |                    | cloud PLC,etc       | low bandwidth   |wide area    |
| 3 | Production  data   | Industry IoT data   |low latency      |Local/       |
|   | collection         | collection, etc     |large connection |metropolitan/|
|   |                    |                     |low speeds       |wide area    |
| 4 | Production         | Industry production |medium bandwidth |Local/       |
|   | Monitoring         | and safety video    |bounded latency  |metropolitan/|
|   |                    | monitoring, etc     |                 |wide area    |
| 5 | AR/VR high         |Industry AR/VR       |high bandwidth   |Local/       |
|   | experience video   |assistance,          |low latency      |metropolitan/|
|   |                    |consumer AR/VR, high |                 |wide area    |
|   |                    |experience cloud game|                 |             |
|   |                    |cloud live streaming |                 |             |
| 6 | AI for video       |Machine vision and   |high bandwidth   |Local/       |
|   |                    |high-definition      |low latency      |metropolitan/|
|   |                    |quality inspection   |high Availability|wide area    |
| 7 | Key control        |Physical isolation   |ultra high       |Local/       |
|   |                    |class of power grid: |Availability     |metropolitan/|
|   |                    |differential         |and isolation    |wide area    |
|   |                    |protection, etc.     |                 |             |
|   |                    |critical control     |                 |             |
|   |                    |class related to life|                 |             |
|   |                    |safety in industry   |                 |             |
Figure 8: Classification and Characteristics of Typical Applications

5. Security Considerations


6. IANA Considerations


7. Acknowledgements


8. References

8.1. Normative References

Liu, P., Li, Y., Eckert, T. T., Xiong, Q., Ryoo, J., zhushiyin, and X. Geng, "Requirements for Scaling Deterministic Networks", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-detnet-scaling-requirements-04, , <>.
Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, , <>.
Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, , <>.
Grossman, E., Ed., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases", RFC 8578, DOI 10.17487/RFC8578, , <>.
Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas, "Deterministic Networking Architecture", RFC 8655, DOI 10.17487/RFC8655, , <>.
Sivabalan, S., Filsfils, C., Tantsura, J., Henderickx, W., and J. Hardwick, "Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) Extensions for Segment Routing", RFC 8664, DOI 10.17487/RFC8664, , <>.
Finn, N., Le Boudec, J.-Y., Mohammadpour, E., Zhang, J., and B. Varga, "Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Bounded Latency", RFC 9320, DOI 10.17487/RFC9320, , <>.

Authors' Addresses

Junfeng Zhao
Quan Xiong
ZTE Corporation
Zongpeng Du
China Mobile